Waste water treatment for a greener planet

Continuous use of water is depleting clean natural reserves due to the domestic and fabril pollution. The objective of municipal and industrial waste water treatment is to extract pollutants, remove toxicants, neutralize coarse particles, and kill pathogens so that quality of sewage is improved to reach the permissible level in order to be discharged into water bodies.waste-water-treatment

Although disposal or reuse occurs after adequation, it has to be the first concern because they are the objectives of processes to purify effluents; their options are the basis for proper technology decisions. Transportation cost is also a variable to take into consideration. Acceptable impurity concentrations may vary with the type of use or location of disposal and also may change widely among different jurisdictions for disposal of waste water to evaporation ponds, infiltration basins or injection wells.

Waste water treatment steps are four:

  • During the screening debris, gross solids, grit oil and grease are removed by passing the product through screens, grit chambers and skimming tanks.
  • Primary procedure of sewage removes 60% suspended solids, 30% COD, 35% BOD, 10% P and 20% total nitrogen. These processes are the sequence of this stage:

Sedimentation

Mechanical flocculation and coagulation and

Neutralization

  • The dissolved and colloidal organic matter is removed by aerobic or anaerobic processes at secondary or biological step.
  • Tertiary step is the final process meant for abolishing the secondary effluents and removal of fine suspended solids, traces of organics and bacteria. The sewage effluent from secondary treatment plant is feed to a flocculation tank where lime is added to eliminate calcium phosphate.

The toxic, non-biodegradable chemicals in fabrileffluents can be removed by adsorption (on activated charcoal), ion exchange, ultra-filtration, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis.

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